Ua kapa ʻia nā diodes māmā e like me nā LED.Hana ʻia ia me nā pūhui i loaʻa ka gallium (Ga), arsenic (As), phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), etc.
Ke hui hou nā electrons a me nā puka, hiki iā ia ke hoʻomālamalama i ke kukui ʻike ʻia, no laila hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia e hana i nā diodes māmā.Hoʻohana ʻia e like me nā kukui hōʻailona ma nā kaapuni a me nā mea kani, a i haku ʻia me nā kikokikona a i ʻole nā ​​hōʻike kikohoʻe.Hoʻopuka nā diodes galium arsenide i ke kukui ʻulaʻula, hoʻopuka nā diodes gallium phosphide i ke kukui ʻōmaʻomaʻo, hoʻopuka nā diodes silicon carbide i ke kukui melemele, a hoʻopuka nā diodes gallium nitride i ke kukui uliuli.Ma muli o nā waiwai kemika, ua hoʻokaʻawale ʻia ia i loko o ka diode kukui-emitting diode OLED a me ka LED diode kukui inorganic.
ʻO ka diode māmā he mea hoʻohana maʻamau e hoʻokuʻu i ka ikehu ma o ka hui hou ʻana o nā electrons a me nā lua e hoʻokuʻu i ka mālamalama.Hoʻohana nui ʻia ia ma ke kahua o ke kukui.[1] Hiki i nā diodes māmā ke hoʻololi i ka ikehu uila i ka ikehu māmā, a loaʻa i nā ʻano hoʻohana ākea i ka nohona o kēia wā, e like me ke kukui, nā hōʻike pālahalaha, a me nā mea lapaʻau.[2]
Ua ʻike ʻia kēia ʻano ʻāpana uila i ka makahiki 1962. I nā lā mua, hiki iā lākou ke hoʻokuʻu wale i ke kukui ʻulaʻula haʻahaʻa.Ma hope mai, ua kūkulu ʻia nā mana monochromatic ʻē aʻe.ʻO ke kukui i hiki ke hoʻokuʻu ʻia i kēia lā ua pālahalaha ʻia i ke kukui ʻike ʻia, infrared a me nā kukui ultraviolet, a ua hoʻonui pū ʻia ka luminosity i kahi ākea.ʻO ka mālamalama.Ua hoʻohana ʻia ka hoʻohana ʻana e like me nā kukui hōʻike, nā paneli hōʻike, etc.;me ka holomua mau o ka ʻenehana, ua hoʻohana nui ʻia nā diodes māmā i nā hōʻike a me nā kukui.
E like me nā diodes maʻamau, ua haku ʻia nā diodes māmā me kahi hui PN, a loaʻa pū kekahi i ka conductivity unidirectional.Ke hoʻohana ʻia ka volta i mua i ka diode hoʻomāmā, ʻo nā lua i hoʻokomo ʻia mai ka wahi P a i ka ʻāpana N a ʻo nā electrons i hoʻokomo ʻia mai ka ʻāpana N a i ka ʻāpana P e pili pū ana me nā electrons ma ka ʻāpana N a me nā hakahaka. ma ka wahi P i loko o kekahi mau microns o ka hui PN.Hoʻohui hou nā puka a hana i ka fluorescence hoʻokuʻu wale.ʻOkoʻa nā kūlana ikehu o nā electrons a me nā lua i nā mea semiconductor like ʻole.Ke hui hou nā electrons a me nā puka, ʻokoʻa ka ikehu i hoʻokuʻu ʻia.ʻO ka nui o ka ikehu i hoʻokuʻu ʻia, ʻoi aku ka pōkole o ka nalu o ke kukui i hoʻokuʻu ʻia.Hoʻohana mau ʻia nā diodes e hoʻopuka ana i ke kukui ʻulaʻula, ʻōmaʻomaʻo a melemele paha.ʻOi aku ka nui o ka volta hoʻohaʻahaʻa hope o ka diode māmā ma mua o 5 volts.ʻO kona ʻano ʻano volt-ampere i mua he kiʻekiʻe loa, a pono e hoʻopili ʻia kahi pale pale palena i kēia manawa ma ke ʻano e hoʻomalu i ke au ma o ka diode.
ʻO ka hapa nui o ka diode māmā he wafer i haku ʻia me ka semiconductor P-type a me ka semiconductor N-type.Aia kahi papa hoʻololi ma waena o ka semiconductor P-type a me ka semiconductor N-type, i kapa ʻia he junction PN.Ma ka hui PN o kekahi mau mea semiconductor, i ka wā e hui hou ai nā mea lawe liʻiliʻi i hoʻokomo ʻia a me nā mea lawe nui, hoʻokuʻu ʻia ka ikehu keu ma ke ʻano o ka māmā, a laila e hoʻololi pololei i ka ikehu uila i ka ikehu māmā.Me ka uila hoʻohuli i hoʻopili ʻia i ka junction PN, paʻakikī ke hoʻokomo i nā mea lawe liʻiliʻi, no laila ʻaʻole ia e hoʻomālamalama.Aia i loko o kahi kūlana hana maikaʻi (ʻo ia hoʻi, hoʻopili ʻia ka volta maikaʻi i nā ʻaoʻao ʻelua), i ka wā e kahe ai ke ʻano mai ka anode LED i ka cathode, e hoʻopuka ka aniani semiconductor i nā kukui o nā kala like ʻole mai ka ultraviolet a i ka infrared.ʻO ka ikaika o ka mālamalama e pili ana i kēia manawa.


Ka manawa hoʻouna: Sep-10-2021